In hospitals and the community, medical microbiology and virology (MMV) is concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infection spread. Both of these specialisations are lab-based, yet they play an important role in clinical infection management. Medical virologists work in a variety of settings, including laboratories, clinics, hospital wards, and the community. They deal with HIV/AIDS and other blood-borne infections like hepatitis B and C, as well as the issues posed by existing and emerging viruses like SARS and avian flu around the world. Bioterrorism, which exploits agents like smallpox, is a new concern that medical virologists must deal with.
Parasites are rapidly being recognised as serious pathogens with global economic, environmental, and public health consequences. More than three billion people are infected with one or more parasites, resulting in varied levels of disease and mortality. Parasitology is the study of parasitic protozoa, helminths, and arthropods, and it has traditionally been restricted to parasitic protozoa, helminths, and arthropods. Human parasitology is concerned with the morphology, life cycle, and relationship of medical parasites to their hosts and environments. Parasitic diseases are likely to remain challenging to control, necessitating new scientific knowledge to improve control efforts.